Mare milk is the main source of nutrition for colts during the early months of their life. It can be multifunctional as it contains: immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, lactalbumin, calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, B13, C , D, E, K, Omega-3 and Omega-6.
Its benefits are well-known since ancient times. Mare milk has always been valued for its medicinal properties, and hence it is being used increasingly in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries and as a breast milk substitute in newborn's diet. In the central areas of the Asian steppes, the Turkish, Bashkir, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Mongolian, Yakut and Uzbek people use it to produce an alcoholic beverage called Koumis (3% alcohol).
Little kids and elder people suffering from cow's milk intolerance, but also intolerance to its proteins and cholesterol, need feasible alternatives. The most significant research to date has stressed the nutritional and health properties of mare milk which is a promising substitute for cow's and human milk.
COMPARISON OF PROPERTIES BETWEEN DIFFERENT TYPES OF MILK
Fat is a generic term that includes many types of lipids, although it generally refers to glycerides. Fat is produced in animals and plants through an organic process which accumulates or stores it in the adipose tissues. All fats are insoluble in water and they have a significantly lower density than water. Those fats that are liquid at room temperature are called oils.
Monounsaturated fatty acids
These fatty acids are those containing a carbon chain made with two carbon atoms connected by a double bond, carbon–carbon (–CH = CH–). An example of this type of acids is the oleic acid that can be found in almost all the natural fats, commonly known as Omega 9. Several Omega-9 fatty acids are monounsaturated being the oleic acid the most important of them all, and the main component of the triolein, which is the main triglyceride found in olive oil. Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated (each molecule contains two or more double bonds).
Saturated fatty acids
These fatty acids have only single bonds in their carbon chain, which is linear. They are usually solid at room temperature and they form fats that are often solid too at room temperature, but they can be liquefied with heat. These fats are known as saturated fat.
Poly-unsaturated fatty acids
These fatty acids are those which have more than one double bound in their carbon chain. Within this group you can find the linoleic acid (Omega-3 and Omega-6) that is essential for the human body. They have a general beneficial effect helping reduce the total cholesterol and they are frequently referred to with its acronym PUFAs
They are the basis of our food pyramid, the "petrol" that our body needs to get going. Find out which is the recommended daily allowance and which type of food will provide them.
It is a sterol (lipid) found in the body tissues and the blood plasma in vertebrates. Despite having high blood cholesterol can cause negative consequences for human health, cholesterol is an essential substance for creating the plasma membrane which regulates what substances enter and exit the cell. It is abundant in animal fats.
Proteins have many functions, the most important ones are the metabolic function and transporting oxygen and antibodies. Proteins contain insulin used for the living organisms as a sugar dissolution.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
It is the predominant antibody type in the seromucous secretions of the body such as saliva, tears, colostrum and respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary secretions. In blood, it is found in a monometric form, but in the mucosa it is found in a dimetric form (secretory IgA). Its main function is to identify the antigens and block their access to the mucosa.
It is disaccharide made from the union of one unit each of glucose and galactose. Lactose is also called the sugar in milk, because appears in mammals female's milk in a proportion of 4 to 5 per cent. In human beings, the lactose enzyme is needed for the correct absorption of lactose. When the body is not able to absorb lactose correctly, it appears some discomforts which are called lactose intolerance.
It is a chemical element with the atomic number 15 and its symbol is P. It is a nonmetallic and polyvalent element that belongs to the nitrogen group (group 15). It is found in nature combined with inorganic phosphates and in living organisms but never in a pure state.
It is associated with blood coagulation through its relationship with the prothrombin protein. Therefore, it is an important component of our diet. The recommended daily allowance for adults ranges from 800–1000 mg. This amount should be increased during our period of growth (9-18 years old), pregnancy and breastfeeding, and also after menopause from 1200 to 1300 mg.